Astronomer and politi cian. In 1899, Pannekoek joined the Sociaal Democratische Arbei derspartij (SDAP, Social Democratic Worker’s Party), founded in 1894; he studied Karl Marx’s Das Kapital and contributed to many Socialist journals. As of 1906, he worked as a teacher and propagan dist for the German Socialist Party in Berlin and Bremen. In 1910, Pannekoek joined Rosa Luxemburg in her criticism of Karl Kautsky on topics such as the general strike, the role of the masses, and lead ership. He returned to the Netherlands in 1914. In 1918, Pannekoek joined the Communistische Partij Holland (CPH, Communist Party of Holland), and although he withdrew his membership in 1921, he remained a regular contributor to several German and Austrian com munist periodicals. In 1919, Pannekoek was appointed lecturer, and in 1925 professor, of astronomy at the University of Amsterdam, where he taught until 1946. He published works on the Milky Way galaxy, astrophysics, and the history of astronomy. His memoirs (Herinneringen) were published in 1980.
   See also Science.

Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. . 2012.

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